I am currently on Lesson 10 of my Sanskrit language textbook, and getting pretty immersed in the Sandhi rules that govern how one word blends into another. The rules are actually very sensible changes that allow the last sound of a word to “get ready” for the first sound of the next word. Not all words undergo sandhi changes, but there are a lot of rules that govern the ones that do. The textbook I use explores these rules over several lessons to give students time to master one rule at a time. Here’s a simple, but painful example.
Anyhow, imagine I want to say “you are beautiful”. The word for “beautiful” is sandaraḥ (सन्दरः) and the singular nominative of “you” is tvam (त्वम्). Thus, grammatically, you can either say “you beautiful are”:
त्वम् सन्दरः असि
tvam sandaraḥ asi
Or, in Sanskrit, you can shorten this to “beautiful you”:
The second form is often used because the “to be” verb is often understood. But now I have to apply sandhi rules to make it more natural sounding.
First, the “aḥ” at the end of the first word runs up against the “t” of the second word. According to sandhi rules, the “aḥ” followed by a “t” becomes an “s” in this case:
But as part of Sandhi, words often combine too, unless the first word ends in a vowel (including ṃ and ḥ) and the second is a consonant.1 So, now we have to combine the words into:
Thus if you want to flatter a lady in Sanskrit, this is what you would say, and how you would write it.
1 I am still not 100% clear when words combine and when they don’t, but the use-cases seem to be:
- Consonant + consonant = combine
- Vowel + vowel = combine
- Consonant + vowel = combine
- Vowel + consonant = not combine