Writing An Essay In Japanese Language

Essay in Japanese

Writing essays in school isn’t, but writing them in a foreign language as a working parent of two? Even harder.

It’s a long story, but my kids go to an afterschool Japanese-language school, and we’re good friends with the family that runs the school. The teacher knew of my interest in Japanese history, and since I am not Japanese, but can speak some, she gave me a challenge to write an essay for the class. She felt it would be fun for the kids to hear from someone who isn’t Japanese describing why they like Japan and its history, as an inspiration for them.

So, that’s when I realized that I had never really written anything in Japanese since college and that was almost 20 years ago.

Fortunately, at some point in the past, I had picked up this delightful little book:

Untitled

This is another book in a series featuring Chibi Marukochan, one of my favorite cartoons from Japan. I own the book on the Hyakunin Isshu1 and on speaking Keigo, but at some point I purchased this book on how to write essays in Japanese. The series of books is geared toward grade-school kids in Japan, not foreigners like me, but the easier Japanese, helpful explanations and fun characters make them really fun to read.

Japanese essays, or sakubun (作文) are normally written on special grid-like paper called genkō yōshi (原稿用紙), which looks like this (source: Wikipedia):

624px-genkoyoshi1

You begin writing your essay from the upper-right, downward. There’s some important rules to bear in mind as far as formatting goes, but I already covered this in a different post from a few years ago.

But the Chibi Marukochan book wasn’t focused on the format, it was focused on how to actually write an essay.

For example, the book helped explain that there are basically 3 types of sentences in Japanese:

  1. What something is doing, for example: まる子が歌う (maruko ga utau, “Maruko is singing”)
  2. What something is like, for example: 水が冷たい (mizu ga tsumetai, “water is cold”)
  3. A is B, for example: これは教科書 (kore wa kyoukasho, “this is a textbook”)

It’s important to recognize this, even if you know some Japanese, because it’s easy to forget. For example here’s a sentence from the book, slightly modified:

私は、冬休みに見た映画はとても面白かった。

To a Japanese learner, this sentence might look right, but it’s actually not. This is a better version:

私は、冬休みに見た映画はとても面白いと思った。

Both of these, if translated into English, would mean “the movie I saw during Winter Break was interesting”, but the second one is correct because it uses correct patterns consistently. The first pattern 私は、…思った (I thought, e.g. what something is doing) while the second pattern is 映画はとても面白い (the movie is/was interesting, e.g. what something is like).

A separate example is to not repeat the same words in the sentence, by using です to substitute. For example, this sentence is awkward (again, adapted from the book):

私の家の庭にあるのは、高い木があります。

Where as this sounds more smooth:

私の家の庭にあるのは、高い木です。

Again, both of these in English mean “In the garden of my house is a tall tree.” The difference is that the first sentence uses the verb ある twice, where as the second sentence substitutes the second ある with です. More on using です can be found in the most excellent Japanese language guide by Tae Kim.

But also, I learned a lot of other useful tips that would work in English too:

  • Decide on your topic ahead of time. It will help focus your essay more.
  • Use your five senses to describe things, rather than just explaining them.
  • Write the first draft out first, then edit. Don’t get bogged down halfway through trying to fix things.
  • Don’t be afraid to proofread.
  • Brevity is good; it’s OK to break up long, droning sentences into shorter ones.

So, how’d my essay go? Pretty good actually. The Japanese moms probably enjoyed the essay more than the kids did, but overall it went pretty well, even though I started speaking too fast (a perennial issue).

If you’re in the same boat, and looking for tips on writing essays in Japanese, hopefully this page will help. Once you get the hang of it, it’s not actually that hard, and is even kind of fun. There’s nothing quite like expressing your thoughts and feelings in a foreign language. 🙂

1 Which was a huge help in writing my other blog. 🙂

Advertisements

A Brief Introduction to Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

Last year, I celebrated my 40th birthday (whoo!). Thanks to some kind gifts from friends and family I bought some books that I had long kept on my wishlist.  This includes books on Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit:

Untitled

This book is titled Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary by Professor Franklin Edgerton. It is an older book, first published in 1953 but there doesn’t seem to be a lot of books published since then on the subject. I was surprised to see this book included both a grammar text and dictionary, which was great. The drawback is that this book assumes you already have a good grasp of “standard” Sanskrit and can be pretty dense.

What is Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit?

Well, the history of northern Indian languages somewhat mirrors the history of Western-European languages in that there is a “mother” language that either directly spawned or influenced other languages. For Western Europe, this is Latin. For northern India,1 this was Sanskrit.

But the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, didn’t speak Sanskrit as a first language. He spoke an ancient form of Magadhi (still spoken today) and many of his followers did too.

Once the Buddha passed away, much of his sermons were recited and preserved among early disciples in various vernacular or “prakrit” languages throughout northern India. These local vernaculars all descended from Sanskrit and were close enough to one another that disciples could translate from one to another pretty effortlessly. Of these, Pali was probably the most common because it was a prakrit that was widely used for trade and commerce.

This was not an accident either, as according to the book, there are Buddhist sutras in which the Buddha encouraged the use of local languages because they were more accessible. In the Pali Canon, particularly the Cullavagga 5.33, the Buddha chastises a couple high-caste followers who wanted to put his teachings into the liturgical form (i.e. “Vedic” or Sanskrit prose) to avoid “corruption” by various students:

The Lord Buddha rebuked them: deluded men, how can you say this? This will not lead to the conversation of the unconverted…And he delivered a sermon and commanded (all) the monks: You are not to put the Buddha’s words into Vedic. Who does so would commit a sin. I authorize you, monks, to learn the Buddha’s words each in his own dialect. (trans. Edgerton)

Similar passages appear in the Dharmagupta sects copy of the sutras, and also in Chinese translations of lost texts in India. The point being: the Buddha wanted the teachings to be as accessible as possible, so it was encouraged to use everyday language and avoid liturgical language.

Where does Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit come in?

For reasons not well-understood, the Buddhist community centuries later eventually changed their mind and started using Sanskrit more and more. At first this started by using Sanskrit terms in the teachings they had passed down generation after generation, but eventually the terms and language became more “Sanskritized” to the point that they almost looked like standard Sanskrit (as defined by Pāṇini).

Thus, different generations of Buddhist texts looked more and more like Sanskrit, but a discerning eye can still see the prakrit origins of the words and grammar. Thus it is not “standard” Sanskrit, but “Buddhist Hybrid” Sanskrit.

One of the earliest examples of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a little-known text called the Mahavastu composed probably in the 2nd century B.C., which, like all such texts, contains both verse and prose form.2 Edgerton points out that the verse sections definitely look like they are composed in a Prakrit language, but with some Sanskrit “polish” while the prose sections look more like Sanskrit. But, as noted by Edgerton, the Mahavastu has a lot of grammatical corruptions in it too as a result of this sometimes clumsy conversion from Prakrit to Sanskrit.

Additionally, the same Buddhist text, if multiple versions were composed, looks more and more like Sanskrit with each new version.

What are some examples of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit texts?

A number of texts that are now a core part of the Mahayana Buddhist canon were composed in various stages of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. Loosely, the three stages are:

  1. Early conversion from Prakrit to Sanskrit (often with grammatical mistakes or corruptions): Mahavastu
  2. Middle stage: The Lotus Sutra, The Gandhavyuha Sutra, The Amitabha Sutra and The Sutra on the Buddha of Immeasurable Life.
  3. Latter stage (texts are mostly converted to Sanskrit, only some natively Prakrit grammar remains): The Diamond Sutra3, The Lankavatara Sutra

Which Prakrit was used?

It’s not always clear which of the many Middle-Indic or “Prakrit” languages was used as the source material. It may not always be the same one. For example Pāli language terms like those in the Pali Canon were often used, but the grammar might be a different Prakrit. Another prakrit used was Gandhari language, especially in the Immeasurable Life Sutra and Amitabha Sutra.

Oftentimes, it is not distinguishable to Edgerton which Prakrit was used because the grammar used was common to most Prakrit languages at the time.

What are some grammatical examples of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit?

This is by no means an exhaustive list. The Edgerton book above is quite huge, and even between texts, the grammar and degree of Sanskritization varies. Also, I am a beginning student of Sanskrit, and definitely not an expert, but I tried to find examples that at least I understood and could convey here.

Grammatical Case Standard Sanskrit ending Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
ā-stem Accusative Sing. ām aṃ
ā-stem Instrumental Pl. ābhiḥ āhi
ā-stem Ablative Sing. āyāḥ ātas (with variations)
ā-stem Genitive Pl. ānām ānā

Other noteworthy examples:

  • N-stem words were frequently converted to Sanskrit a-stem endings. For example mūrdhan might become mūrdhaḥ/mūrdho.
  • Dual-endings in Sanskrit, were evidentially not used much (if at all) in the original Prakrit, so when the text was converted to Sanskrit, a dual-ending was awkwardly “bolted on” where applicable.
  • Unlike Sanskrit where verbs have a special “root” (which doesn’t always look like verb in present form), the original Prakrit just used present stem.
  • Sandhi rules for the Prakrit were not the same as Sanskrit. For example, when the first word ends in a vowel, while the second word starts with the same vowel (a and a for example), rather than combining them into a longer vowel (ā for example), one would just get dropped.
  • Another example of differences with Sandhi: unlike Sanskrit, final endings like as and ar might sometimes just drop the “s” and “r” rather than altering the sound.

Anyhow, this page has been an amateur’s attempt to make sense of and distill a complex subject to a wider audience. Hope you enjoyed and if you happen to know about the subject, please post comments below! Thanks!

1 Southern Indian languages are an entirely different subject, but fascinating in its own right. I just don’t know much about it.

2 Even in the earliest Buddhist sutras, sometimes you see both prose and verse forms, but this “mixture” becomes more and more common in later Buddhist texts.

3 I’d venture that all the existing Perfection of Wisdom sutras are similarly written in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit depending on when they were composed. The subject of when each of the Perfection of Wisdom sutras was composed is still a matter of debate though.

Dogen and No-Self

Many Zen Buddhists, or just Buddhists in general, know Dogen’s famous quote about “studying the self”. It’s a popular reminder of what Buddhism is all about. I’ve seen various translations in various books, but I have yet to see an example of a bilingual translation until now:

http://spacenowhere.com/blog/meditation-group/zen/

I always like to see translations like this, because I’ve learned to distrust English translations of Buddhist texts that don’t include any references to the original language.  There are a lot of bad Buddhist quotes and translations floating around, and even something simple as the Buddhist “nembutsu” or reciting the Buddha’s name, gets mistranslated a lot. More on that in an old post.

Anyhow, I digress.  Looking at Dogen’s original writing, a few things I noticed as a language nerd:

  • Since this was written in 13th century, not the 21st century, it uses more archaic Japanese.
  • Similarly, the spellings are different: instead of saying toiu, it is spelled toifu, though it was probably pronounced the same.
  • Not surprisingly, Dogen uses some obscure Zen-Buddhist terms that even the Japanese language site above has to provide footnotes for, such as Goseki (悟迹) which means the period after Enlightenment.

Anyhow, regardless of the language, this quotation is still one of the best in Buddhism in my opinion.  Even Buddhists have to pause and remember to take stock about why they’re practicing Buddhism.  Contemporary history is rife with examples of Buddhist teachers who went off the rails, and of course this can happen to anyone, so it’s good to remember why we practice Buddhism.  Dogen’s words are a good reminder for us all.

Devanagari and Siddham: a brief comparison

Hello,

My studies of Sanskrit continue and I am starting to get more familiar with the Devanagari writing system used in the textbook, and for modern Sanskrit studies.  However, I also branched out a little bit into learning Siddham as well.

As mentioned in an earlier post, Sanskrit language has no “native” script so various writing systems have been used for time.  Devanagari is widely-used script across many northern-Indian languages (Marathi, Hindi, etc) and is great for reading/writing Sanskrit, however, many ancient Buddhist texts were written before Devanagari’s invention, so many texts used older writing systems.

Siddham on the other hand was frequently used for ancient Buddhist writings and is still used in esoteric Buddhist sects, particularly Shingon Buddhism in Japan.  So, I’ve dabbled in Siddham a little along with learning Devanagari.

In one of my Japanese language books1 on Sanskrit and Siddham, はじめての「梵字の読み書き」入門 (hajimete no “bonji no yomikata” nyūmon) contains a great chart comparing the Siddham alphabet with Chinese characters, Japanese pronunciation, etc. The chart is very useful, but obviously I can’t post it here since it belongs to the author.  So, instead, I am constructing my own chart using information gleaned from the book and my own studies, plus additional information. This chart is not complete, but I will continue updating as time goes on.

Devanagari Siddham Romanization Japanese Katakana
カタカナ
Siddham a a as in “uh”
Siddham aa ā as in “ah-ha!” アー
Siddham i i as in “ee”
Siddham ii Ī as in “ee” but longer イー
Siddham u u as in “oo”
Siddham uu ū as in “oo”, but longer ウー
Siddham e e as in “ay” エイ
Siddham ai ai as in “aye” アイ
Siddham o o as in “oh”
Siddham au au as in “ow” アウ
Siddham ri
Siddham rii リー

Since Siddham and Devanagari are “genetically” related scripts (though, one did not descend from the other), you can see how some letters look similar, while others look quite different.

Note: Siddham is available in Unicode, but it is difficult to view without the right fonts, so I am (shamelessly) posting image files from Wikimedia Commons.

Enjoy!

1 Another book I highly recommend if you’re serious about the subject is 梵字必携―書写と解読 (bonji hittei: shakyo to kaidoku)

Translating Japanese politeness

Japanese and English are pretty different languages, and although I’ve been studying it more or less for 10 years (essentially since my daughter was born), I am still fascinated by the differences.  Human feelings and sentiment are the same everywhere, but it’s intriguing how each language approaches how to express those sentiments.  In the case of Japanese, I find its polite expressions or keigo (more on keigo here thanks to Tae Kim) one of the more challenging aspects to translate.

Here are a couple examples I found on my last trip and often see.  These are kind of stock-phrases in Japanese, and while I have come to intuitively understand them, if you try to take apart and find English equivalents, it can be tough.

First example:

ご協力お願いいたします。
go-kyōryōku onegai-itashimasu

To me, the best way to translate this is “thank you for your cooperation”, and usually is found on plaques that warn pedestrians to be careful, or refrain from smoking at such and such place, etc. Basically, a polite and formal warning.

The phrase kyōryōku (協力) means cooperation. Easy enough. The “go” in front of it is an honorific that makes the noun more polite and respectful because they’re asking for your cooperation.

The verb onegaishimasu (お願いします) can mean something like “if you please” and is used in all kinds of polite circumstances like introducing yourself (yoroshiku onegaishimasu) or just when you’re formally asking a favor of something. You’ll often see in dramas where one character bows deeply to someone he’s asking for help and says “onegaishimasu!” in the process.

Except here, the verb is onegai-itashimasu. The itashimasu is not just polite, but also conveys deep humility. This is the sort of thing you might only use when talking to someone much higher ranking than you, or a very formal situation.

So, if you try to translate this literally, it’s more likely “we humbly ask for your cooperation.” That’s all well and good except Westerners just never talk like this because the sense of “humble” and “honorific” just isn’t as strongly expressed in English. Hence “thank you for your cooperation” is more than sufficient and probably more natural-sounding in English.

Another example that might be even harder is:

ご迷惑になりますのでご遠慮ください
go-meiwaku ni narimasu no de go-enryo-kudasai

This lengthy phrase probably might be best translated in English as “please refrain from (annoying others by doing) X”.

Whoa, all that for 3 words in English?

Let’s break it down. First, the word meiwaku which means something annoying or a nuisance. Again, as we saw above, the leading particle “go” is added because they are speaking to you the customer, passenger, etc and therefore it should be more polite and honorific.

The next part of the sentence, ni narimasu no de, is just normal Japanese grammar meaning “because it becomes …” but the narimasu here also expresses state, so “because it’s a …”. In this case, “because it’s a nuisance…”.

The next part of the sentence, go-enryo-kudasai, is another phrase you see a lot in Japanese and just means “Please refrain from”. The word enryo means to refrain or restrain oneself and often times you’ll housewives and nice old ladies tell you something like “enryo shinakute ii” or something like that when offering treats. They’re telling you don’t be shy and help yourself. As with meiwaku and kyōryōku, this is a noun, you so can make it polite by prefixing it with “go” because of your target audience.

Kudasai is probably one fo the first things you’ll learn in Japanese and is one of many ways to say “please”, and one fo the most useful. In polite Japanese, when you’re suggesting something to someone, like “come into the house”2 or “take a look”2 rather than saying “please do X” like in English, instead you often say “go-(noun) kudasai” or sometimes “o-(noun) kudasai”. It has the same nuance as “please do X”, but is grammatically quite different because there’s no actual verb in the sentence.1As with the previous phrase we looked at, even if you translate literally though it doesn’t sound that natural in English where it is sufficient to say “please don’t do X” or more politely “please refrain from X”.

Anyhow, Japanese, like all languages, has its own internal logic, but that logic may be very different than one’s own native language, and so it can be hard mechanically translate things from one language to another.  The key is getting enough exposure to intuitively understand what is being said, because then you can find a suitable feeling or expression in your own language.

Good luck and happy language studying!

1 The word “kudasai” comes from the verb “kudasaru” (to oblige) but is not exactly in verb-form here. It basically is just another set-phrase.

2 These are o-agari-kudasai (お上がりください) and go-ran-kudasai (ご覧ください) respectively by the way. 😉

Where Does Namu Come From?

The term “namu” shows up a lot in East Asian Buddhism, for example in devotional chants such as:

  • Namu myōhō renge kyō – Praise to the Lotus Sutra which is a Japanese chant for Nichiren Buddhism.
  • Namu Amita Bul – “Praise to the Buddha of Infinite Light” in Korean.
  • Nam mô A Di Đà Phật – same as above, but Vietnamese.
  • Namu Amida Butsu – same as above, but Japanese.
  • Nā mó guān shì yīn pú sà (南无观世音菩萨||南無觀世音菩薩) – “Praise to Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva” in Chinese, with both Simplified and Traditional characters shown.

You can see how each language has a variation on the word “namu”: “nam mo”, “na mo”, etc.  What the heck is this?

This is actually from Sanskrit language, which I’ve been studying lately.  The original, vanilla term is namas (नमस्) which according to the Sanskrit dictionary means “bow, obeisance, reverential salutation, adoration” etc, etc.  This term is not limited to Buddhism either.  It shows up a lot in Indian culture, and even in Yoga when you say to one another “namaste”.¹

Now, here’s the funny part.  Sanskrit words frequently undergo sound changes called “sandhi”, which I’ve talked about here and here and here among other places.  This means that people don’t always say “namas this” and “namas that”.  Sandhi rules in Sanskrit allow for a sound to get ready for the next sound by changing a little to more accurately fit the position of the tongue in the mouth.

The word namas changes like so, depending on the following sound:

  • namo (नमी) if the following sound is a vowel, or a voiced consonant (j, jh, g, gh, d, dh, b, bh) or by nasal sounds (r, l, h, n, m).
  • namaś (नमश्) if the following sound is a c or ch
  • namaṣ (नमष्) if the following sound is a ṭ or ṭh
  • namas (नमस्) if the following sound is a t or th
  • namaḥ (नमः) if the following sound is a k, kh, p, ph, ś, s, ṣ or it’s the last word in the sentence.

So, for example in Buddhist liturgy to say “praise to the Buddha of Infinite Light”, the words before Sandhi would be namas amitābhāya but due to Sandhi rules become namo’mitābhāya.²  This is probably what got imported into China as Buddhism spread there.

From there, the “namo” was translated using suitable Chinese characters that phonetically sound the same.  In this case: 南無 which even today in Chinese is pronounced nāmó.

But also since Chinese and Chinese Buddhist liturgy were imported into other neighboring countries and given more local pronunciation. The Chinese characters would have been the same, but every country would read/pronounce them slightly different.

Thus “namo” became “namu” in places like Korea and Japan, but still “namo” in Vietnamese.

¹ Technically, namaste is a Hindi word, not Sanskrit, but Hindi is clearly derived from Sanskrit. The easiest way to understand this is that Sanskrit is to northern-Indian languages (Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali, etc) what Latin is to Western-European languages (French, German, English, Italian, etc).

² The apostrophe is because the “a” of the second word gets dropped.  This is a special rule in Sanskrit where aḥ/as + a changes to o ‘ .  Why?  It just does.

Sun and Moon: A classic Japanese haiku

Recently while watching the Japanese children’s show with my kids, nihongo de asobo, they showed this haiku poem:

菜の花や Na no hana ya
月は東に Tsuki wa higashi ni
日は西に Hi wa nishi ni

Which means something like “Ah, Rape Blossoms!¹ The moon is in the east, the sun is in the west”.

According to this website in Japanese, the poem was composed in the year 1774 by the famous poet Yosa Buson (与謝蕪村 1716-1784), when he was standing in a field of rape blossoms in what is now the city of Kobe during a sunset when the moon was also rising in the east.  The sunset cast a golden glow over the field of flowers, while the rising moon in the east cast a silvery glow too.

Pretty cool imagery, and one of those moments that stays with you your whole life.

¹ Also known its botanical name Brassica Rapa.