Personal Financing: the Buddhist Way

Just a nice random little sutra I found in the Pali Canon I wanted to share: the Dighajanu Sutta (AN 8.54).  Here the Buddha is talking to a lay follower, who sought his advice about how to live a life of financial security and happiness.

The Buddha’s advice falls into four, simple no-nonsense categories:

  • Work hard and master an important skill.
  • Store the hard-earned wealth securely to avoid theft or loss.
  • Cultivate good friendships, avoid harmful friendships (that lead to debauchery, drunkenness, gambling, etc).
  • Live a balanced lifestyle; don’t spend beyond your means.

Further, the Buddha discusses how to ensure happiness and security in future lives:

  • Confidence in the Buddha and the Buddha’s teachings (i.e. the Dharma)
  • Living a life of wholesome conduct, including the Five Precepts.
  • Being generous toward others
  • Cultivating wisdom through the Buddha’s teachings.

The sutra finally ends in a nice verse (translation by Ven. Narada Thera):

Energetic and heedful in his tasks,
Wisely administering his wealth,
He lives a balanced life,
Protecting what he has amassed.

Endowed with faith and virtue too,
Generous he is and free from avarice;
He ever works to clear the path
That leads to weal in future life.

Thus to the layman full of faith,
By him, so truly named ‘Enlightened,’
These eight conditions have been told
Which now and after lead to bliss.

Pretty cool sutra.  Enjoy!

A Historical Look at the Pali Canon

Recently, I started reading a collection of essays on early Indian Buddhist history and archeology called Bones, Stones, And Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers On The Archaeology, Epigraphy, And Texts Of Monastic Buddhism In India by Professors Gregory Schopen and Donald S. Lopez Jr.  The book’s stated intention is to show how studies of early Buddhist history have a kind of Western-Protestant bias1 that relies mostly on textual evidence, even archeological evidence proves otherwise.  It’s been a surprisingly interesting read.

One of the topics addressed is the question of how Buddhist texts are evaluated by age and authenticity.

The Pali Canon, for example, is assumed to be the oldest source of Buddhist textual information, and the authors concede that point, but notice the dating (emphasis added):

We know, and have known for some time, that the Pāli canon as we have it—and it is generally conceded to be our oldest source—cannot be taken back further than the last quarter of the first century B.C.E., the date of the Alu-vihāra redaction, the earliest redaction that we can have some knowledge of… (pg. 23)

But immediately after, they warn readers that:

…and that—for a critical history—it can serve, at the very most, only as a source for the Buddhism of this period. (pg. 23)

Later on page 27, they further clarify that the most reliable date is from 29-17 B.C.E.  This is 400-500+ years after the historical Buddha lived.

The book later shows texts did exist in earlier times, but in a scattered form and not in a single canon.  For example during the time of King Aśoka (3rd century B.C.E.):

Although Aśoka in his Bhābrā Edict specifically enjoined both monks and laymen to recite certain texts, which he named, he nowhere in his records gives any indication that he know of a canon, or the classification of texts into nikāyas [divisions of texts used in the Pali canon]. (pg. 24)

Additionally, although the Pali Canon is the oldest known compilation, it that existed centuries after the historical Buddha, not every text or story in the Canon is necessarily the oldest.

The book illustrates a good example of this.  There is a particular story, found in the textual collections of the Mahāsāṇghika, Mahīśāsaka, Dharmaguptaka and in the Pali Canon which concerns the Buddha’s discovery of a stupa for his deceased disciple Kāśyapa. The book explains that all four versions are fairly consistent, though each one embellishes with literary cliches and such. However, seeing these four texts, one would assume that the fact they are pretty consistent would mean “the essential elements of this account must go back to a very old or presectarian stage of the tradition” (pg 28).

However, it turns out there is an obscure fifth source in the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya textual collection at Gilgit. In this version, which has much less literary “padding”, there is no mention of a stupa at all, just the relics of Kāśyapa. The authors postulate that this version is older than the ones found in other collections.

The four versions above are consistent, presumably, because they draw upon a later, more polished version of the story.

This applies to a lot of other things related to early Buddhist historical studies, but the point of this post is focused on the Pali Canon. There’s a general Western assumption that because it is the oldest, it is therefore more accurate than other Buddhist sources at understanding what the early Buddhist community was like, how they lived, etc.

But there’s a few problems with this:

  • The Pali Canon is centuries after the Buddha, so no living person who compiled the canon lived during the time of the Buddha, and cannot attest to whether the texts they draw upon are true or not. They rely on tradition just as much as other early Buddhist schools did.
  • The Pali Canon uses a lot of literary padding, similar to other compilations by other schools.  For example many sutras often end with the same stock ending (translation by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu):

    “Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life.”

    Or just look at the repetitive nature of lists enumerated in the Pali Canon sutras. No natural human would talk this way, and so it’s obvious that the information was edited for easier recitation, compilation and memorization.

  • The book also shows in greater detail than can be explained here, that archeological evidence doesn’t always agree with what textual sources imply.  One big example cited by the book is the many examples of stupas that are erected at places like Bhāhut and Sāñci, using donations not by lay-people but mostly by monks, which implied monks did own at least some property despite textual sources implying they didn’t.

Essentially, what the book argues is that information from early Buddhist history and culture should be not exclusively drawn from textual sources, but must be weighed against other evidence, even when it bears some uncomfortable truths (such as monks/nuns owning property).  This rubs against the Western-Protestant cultural tendency toward sola scriptura (by text alone),² but it gives us a more rich and human-centric understanding of how people lived and practiced Buddhism in that era.

1 Another example here.

² In other words, just because a sutra says so doesn’t always mean it’s the final word.

Mindfulness Works

There are plenty of articles on the Internet explaining the benefits of meditation, including Buddhist mindful meditation, but I felt this article was particularly interesting, because it explains why the alternative (a wandering mind) can be harmful.  The idea is that the wandering mind builds up all sorts of anxiety and unease that may have no actual connection to real-life, but tends to take on a life of its own within our minds.  If left unchecked, this can make us suffer when there’s no need for us to.

Although I haven’t been very diligent about meditation in the past, I found this article made a lot of sense for me.  I found that when I get really worked up about something, it helps to stop and take a deep breath for a moment, and just take a moment to pay attention to whatever I’m doing.

Certainly better than the alternative… 😉

Getting Back to Basics

Every once in a while I like to read the following sutra from the Pali Canon, the Gotami Sutta (AN 8.53), translated by Ven. Thannisaro Bhikkhu:1

I have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying at Vesali, in the Peaked Roof Hall in the Great Forest.

Then Mahapajapati Gotami went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, stood to one side. As she was standing there she said to him: “It would be good, lord, if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma in brief such that, having heard the Dhamma from the Blessed One, I might dwell alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute.”

“Gotami, the qualities of which you may know, ‘These qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered, not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to contentment; to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome’: You may categorically hold, ‘This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the Teacher’s instruction.’

“As for the qualities of which you may know, ‘These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered, not to being fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment, not to discontent; to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome’: You may categorically hold, ‘This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher’s instruction.'”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Mahapajapati Gotami delighted at his words.

This sutra is a nice reminder of what Buddhism is all about. It’s not about a particular chant, or Buddha, or sutra. It’s about training the mind to remain steadfast amidst the ups and downs of life, letting go of things you don’t really need, living a balanced, moderate life and so on. Anything that is not conducive toward those goals ought to be let go.

This is something that everyone must weigh for themselves in their own lives…

1 There is an almost identical sutra addressed to Upali as well. Not sure why there are two.

Now Is All That Matters

The secret of happy, successful living lies in doing what needs to be done now. We should not worry about the past and future. We cannot go back into the past to undo the things we have done. Nor can we anticipate everything that may happen in the future due to conditions in the world which are constantly changing and unpredictable. There is but one moment of time over which we have some conscious control- ‘the present!’ (Pg. 126)

How To Live Without Fear And Worry by K. Sri Dhammananda’s

P.S. Originally posted here.

Everyone Sucks Some Of The Time

Dear Readers,

I found this great quotation from the Dhammapada recently and just wanted to share.

228. There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a person who is wholly blamed or wholly praised.

229. But the man whom the wise praise, after observing him day after day, is one of flawless character, wise, and endowed with knowledge and virtue.

230. Who can blame such a one, as worthy as a coin of refined gold? Even the gods praise him; by Brahma, too, is he praised.

Everyone has a bad day (or several), but if one can maintain a wholesome character, the ups and downs of life won’t make a difference. Just like the story of the Zen master Hakuin who was blamed for fathering a child out of wedlock.  Hakuin was unfazed by the criticism and such, but in the end, his good character and blameless conduct proved itself.

Don’t let the criticism get you down.  Everyone gets blamed or criticized at least some of the time.  Just focus on how you conduct your life.  🙂

Do the Right Thing

Lately, I was reminded of this old sutra in the Pali Canon called the Saddhammapatirupaka Sutta (SN 16.13) also called the “A Counterfeit of the True Dhamma” sutra.

In this sutra, one of the senior disciples of the Buddha named Maha-Kashyapa asked the Buddha why the early community had few training rules, and many students who made progress, while there were many training rules now, and fewer disciples attaining awakening.

The passage I was particularly interested in was this one:

“These five downward-leading qualities tend to the confusion and disappearance of the true Dhamma. Which five? There is the case where the monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers live without respect, without deference, for the Teacher. They live without respect, without deference, for the Dhamma… for the Sangha… for the Training… for concentration. These are the five downward-leading qualities that tend to the confusion and disappearance of the true Dhamma.

When choosing a Buddhist community and following the Buddhist path, it really helps to consider these points above.  Oftentimes, especially for those of us who are in non-Buddhist countries, we have few options, and just want to find a like-minded community.

But it’s better to maintain integrity than to compromise for the sake of fitting in.