All The World Is Not Enough

Something I randomly found in the Pali Canon the other day. This is from the Māgaṇḍiya Sutta (MN 75), translated by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu:

“Now what do you think, Māgaṇḍiya? Have you ever seen or heard of a king or king’s minister—enjoying himself, provided & endowed with the five strands of sensual pleasure, without abandoning sensual craving, without removing sensual fever—who has dwelt or will dwell or is dwelling free from thirst, his mind inwardly at peace?”

“No, Master Gotama.”

“Very good, Māgaṇḍiya. Neither have I ever seen or heard of a king or king’s minister—enjoying himself, provided & endowed with the five strands of sensual pleasure, without abandoning sensual craving, without removing sensual fever—who has dwelt or will dwell or is dwelling free from thirst, his mind inwardly at peace. But whatever contemplatives or brahmans who have dwelt or will dwell or are dwelling free from thirst, their minds inwardly at peace, all have done so having realized—as it has come to be—the origination & disappearance, the allure, the danger, & the escape from sensual pleasures, having abandoned sensual craving and removed sensual fever.”

This reminds me of the famous verses from the Dhammapada about a rain of gold coins, or Biggie Smalls song about Mo Money, Mo Problems.


Vasubandhu’s Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only

Hi all,

Recently I had a fun conversation with Buddhist teacher, and this teacher shared some interesting Buddhist texts for me to read. This one is a Buddhist poem by the famous Indian Buddhist Vasubandhu who was an important, early figure in the venerable Yogacara school of Buddhism. It is also called the “Consciousness Only” school.

This text is called the Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā (Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only) or in Japanese Buddhism the yuishiki sanjōju (唯識三十頌).

The English translation is as follows:

From the delusion of self and dharmas,
Comes the conveyence of various manifestations;
These are supported and transformed by consciousness,
And there are only three of these which may transform.

These are retribution, thought,
And the perception of external objects.
The first of these is the Ālaya Consciousness,
Which is retribution as well as all the seeds.

Its grasping, location, and knowing are imperceivable,
And it is always associated with mental contact,
Attention, sensation, conception, and thought;
It is associated with neither pleasure nor pain.

It is undefiled and morally indeterminate;
Mental contact and the others are also like this.
Its conveyence is like that of a flowing stream,
And it is abandoned in the stage of the arhat.

Next is the second which is able to transform,
And this consciousness is called Manas.
It is supported by the previous conveyence,
And its character and nature are that of thought.

It is always associated with the four vexations,
Which are delusion of a self, perception of a self,
Identity with a self, and love of a self,
As well as mental contact and the others.

It is defiled and morally indeterminate,
And its location is bound to that of life.
In the Nirodha Samāpatti of the arhats,
And in the Supramundane Path, it does not exist.

Next is the third which is able to transform,
Which is distinguished into six different divisions;
Its appearance and nature are perceiving external objects,
And these may be good, bad, or indeterminate.

It is associated with omnipresent mental activities,
With the external objects, the good, the vexations,
The secondary vexations, and the undetermined,
And it is associated with all three feelings.

Omnipresent mental activities are mental contact, etc.;
Next are those with objects, which are desires,
Determination, mindfulness, samādhi, wisdom, etc.,
And the object of each of these is not the same.

The good are faith, conscience, a sense of shame,
The three roots such as desirelessness, etc.,
And also vigor, peacefulness, vigilance,
Equanimity, and harmlessness.

The vexations are desire, hatred,
Delusion, pride, doubt, and wrong views.
The secondary vexations are anger,
Hostility, obscuration, anger, jealousy, greed,

Deceit, harmful flattery, arrogance,
Lack of shame, lack of conscience,
Acting upon agitations, torpor,
A lack of faith, laziness,

Negligence as well as forgetfulness,
Distraction, and incorrect knowing.
The undetermined are remorse, sleep,
And both types of initial and sustained thought.

With their basis in the root consciousness,
The five consciousnesses manifest according to conditions;
These manifestations may occur together or separately,
Just as waves are formed upon the water.

The thought consciousness always manifests
Except for those born in the heavens of no-thought,
For those in the two samādhis without thought,
And for those who are drowsy or unconsciousness.

These various consciousnesses are transformed
As discrimination and that which is discriminated,
And with this basis they are all empty—
Thus they are all Consciousness Only.

Through the consciousness of all seeds,
There are such-and-such transformations,
And from the power of this conveyence,
This-and-that are produced by discrimination.

Due to the habit energy of various actions,
Along with the habit energy of dualistic grasping,
Even when earlier retributions are exhausted,
Still the renewed arising of retribution occurs.

From this and that imagination,
One imagines all kinds of objects;
These pervasive imagined objects
Are without actual self-nature.

From the self-nature of interdependence
Comes discrimination arising from conditions;
The perfection of the fruit comes from
Always being apart from the former nature.

Therefore in relation to the interdependent,
It is neither different nor is it not different,
Just like the nature of impermanence, etc.,
And when one is not perceived, the other is.

On the basis of the three kinds of self-nature
Is established the threefold absence of self-nature;
Thus the Buddha spoke with the hidden intent
That all dharmas are without nature.

The first is the naturelessness of characteristics,
The next is the naturelessness of self-existence;
The last is the detachment from the first,
When the natures of self and dharmas are grasped.

This is the ultimate truth of all dharmas,
And it is also the same as True Suchness.
Because its nature is eternally so,
It is the true nature of Consciousness Only.

So long as one has not given rise to the consciousness
Which seeks to abide in the nature of Consciousness Only,
Then regarding the two types of grasping dispositions,
He is still not yet able to subdue and extinguish them.

Setting up and establishing even something small
And saying this is the nature of Consciousness Only,
Because there is still something which is grasped,
It is not truly abiding in Consciousness Only.

When one regards that which is conditioned
With the wisdom of total non-appropriation,
Then at that time one abides in Consciousness Only,
Apart from the duality of grasping at appearances.

Without grasping and not conceptualizing—
This is the wisdom of the supramundane realm
Which abandons the coarseness of duality
And naturally attains transformation of the basis.

This itself is the realm of no outflows,
Inconceivable, good, and eternal,
The peaceful and blissful body of liberation,
And what the great Muni called the Dharma.

Translated from Taishō Tripiṭaka volume 31, number 1586, translator unknown.

A few terms here are unique to Yogacara Buddhism, and I have an explanation posted here.


Too Good To Last

Having already renounced the pleasures of the five desires,
One has cast them off and does not look back.
Why would one still desire to gain them,
Like a fool who laps up his own vomit?

–“Verse on Eliminating Hindrances” in The Essentials of Buddhist Meditation by Zhiyi, translated by Bhikshu Dharmamitra

Recently I wrote about my positive experiences with Moon Meditation in Shingon Buddhism, and in truth I had been visiting the same temple a number of times recently. I guess I’ve been motivated by my recent trip to Japan to experiment a little with various Buddhist sects and just try things out. I’ve been enjoying my experience there until last Sunday.

Last Sunday was a Goma fire ritual, something I’ve seen before in Japan, and was somewhat familiar with. Watching a goma ritual was one thing, but actually taking part in it was another. We must have chanted the same mantra over and over again for an hour before the ritual ended and we were all exhausted.

It was at this point that the priest explained the significance of the fire ritual to the congregation. He explained how, despite what Buddhism usually teaches, desire was not wrong, but inherently pure. For example, a child wanting milk.

My mind slammed on its brakes, and I thought to myself “that isn’t what the Buddha taught.” I felt really troubled by this, so I did a bit of research.

Apparently, this is a common teaching in esoteric Buddhist traditions. For example, in one Shingon Buddhist blog, I read how desire is accepted in the tradition as part of the human condition and transformed into something positive. Sexual desire transforms into compassion and zeal for awakening and so on.

While this has an internal logic to it, I still don’t feel right about this. I was reminded of the Sutra of the Simile of the Water Snake (MN 22), an old sutra from the Pali Canon that covered this very subject. One of the Buddha’s monastic disciples, Arittha, started telling other people that the Buddha taught that sensual desires were not in fact obstructions to the path. Other disciples tried to warn him, but Arittha would not listen until finally the Buddha shows up and tells him he’s an idiot:

“Worthless man, from whom have you understood that Dhamma taught by me in such a way? Worthless man, haven’t I in many ways described obstructive acts? And when indulged in they are genuine obstructions. I have said that sensual pleasures are of little satisfaction, much stress, much despair, & greater drawbacks….But you, worthless man, through your own wrong grasp [of the Dhamma], have both misrepresented us as well as injuring yourself and accumulating much demerit for yourself, for that will lead to your long-term harm & suffering.”

The Buddha then explains how important it is to properly grasp the foundations of the Dharma, like grasping a water snake. If you grasp the snake incorrectly, you will get bitten with deadly poison. In the same way, if you grasp the Dharma wrongly, you can easily lead yourself astray. In Arittha’s case he made a total arse of himself and also gave the Buddha’s community a bad reputation.

Rooted in this ignorance is the sense of self. The Buddha contrasted the view ‘This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am’ with the Dharma. When observing the self through the Dharma one realizes that such feelings and sensations are ‘not mine, not my self, not what I am.’

I feel that the justification by estoeric Buddhism that desire and self are pure and can be transformed by the Buddha-Dharma into something wholesome is just a bunch of mental gymnastics. In the same sutra above, the Buddha pointedly said:

The Dhamma thus well-proclaimed by me is clear, open, evident, stripped of rags.

By this he meant that there were no hidden meanings, mental gymnastics or justifications. What he taught was what he meant, and since he taught that craving is unproductive and base, that’s exactly what he intended to convey.

That said, one question that inevitably comes up is whether desires are always evil? For example, the desire for a child’s wellbeing.

This is why it’s important to have a good foundation in the basics of Buddhism. The English word “desire” is a loaded term with many meanings, but in the Pali language used for the sutra above, the term tanha is used. Tanha more narrowly refers to sensual craving, thirst, etc. Rev. Brad Warner’s article does a nice job explaining that such things must be confronted, observed and one should not follow the knee-jerk reaction to satisfy them. He even quotes a New York Times piece about how the “If it feels good, do it” advice is basically a path to ruin:

But that is Mother Nature’s cruel hoax. She doesn’t really care either way whether you are unhappy — she just wants you to want to pass on your genetic material. If you conflate intergenerational survival with well-being, that’s your problem, not nature’s. And matters are hardly helped by nature’s useful idiots in society, who propagate a popular piece of life-ruining advice: “If it feels good, do it.” Unless you share the same existential goals as protozoa, this is often flat-out wrong.

More philosophically, the problem stems from dissatisfaction — the sense that nothing has full flavor, and we want more. We can’t quite pin down what it is that we seek. Without a great deal of reflection and spiritual hard work, the likely candidates seem to be material things, physical pleasures or favor among friends and strangers.

This is the great trap (e.g. Samsara) that the Buddha spoke of: this persistent need for gratification in every shape and form.

Desiring for the well-being of others, if sincere, is compassion or goodwill (metta). Here, you are putting yourself in the other’s shoes, empathizing with them, trying to understand what they are going through, and wishing to help. Desiring for gratification is tanha. This is putting yourself in the center, trying to relieve your own dissatisfaction, scratching that itch, and wondering why you itch again so soon after. Like a mosquito bite, scratching feels good at first, but it just makes the bite swell and get more red. If you keep scratching, eventually you tear the skin and bleed. After spending 3 weeks in Japan during the hot, humid summer, believe me I learned this the hard way. Eventually I just learned to not react to the itching bites and just stop scratching. The itching still persisted a little, but it never got worse.

Also, remember the Buddha taught the Middle Way in his first sermon:

“There are these two extremes that are not to be indulged in by one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is devoted to sensual pleasure in connection with sensuality: base, vulgar, common, ignoble, unprofitable; and that which is devoted to self-affliction: painful, ignoble, unprofitable. Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathāgata—producing vision, producing knowledge—leads to stilling, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to unbinding.

The alternative to indulging in sensual craving, self-neglect, was equally wrong. The Buddha taught a middle way between these extremes.

…and that’s why the Buddha warned against grasping the water snake incorrectly. Anyone can reach out and grab a snake, but if you do it wrongly, you’ll end up dead.

Thus, while I can see many positive things about the esoteric Buddhist path, I feel there’s a lot of danger to it too, and I personally disagree with its assertions. The Moon Meditation was great, and I met a lot of nice people, but this is definitely a path I cannot follow.

P.S. More on sex desire and Buddhism.

One Vehicle Buddhism

Still reading the Japanese-language introduction to Tendai Buddhism called うちのお寺は天台宗 (“My Temple is Tendai Buddhism”). One thing the book talks about a lot is the Tendai-Buddhist concept of ichijō bukkyō (一乗仏教) or “one-vehicle Buddhism”.

The idea is not necessarily unique to Tendai though. In the Lotus Sutra, chapter two, the Buddha surprises all his followers by stating that all the different “vehicles” of Buddhism are in fact one vehicle because they all converge to the same endpoint anyway.

To clarify, Mahayana Buddhism has always listed three basic types of disciples:

  • Śravaka or “voice-hearers” (Japanese: shōmon, 声聞) – These are the students who “hear” the Buddha’s teachings and try to practice them in their life in order to attain liberation. Such people, if they attain awakening, would become arhats (or arahants) which means “noble ones”.
  • Pratyekabuddha or “private buddha” (Japanese: engaku, 縁覚) – these are beings who come upon the Dharma by the themselves and attain liberation. For whatever reason, they lack the capacity for teaching to others, hence they differ from the historical Buddha Shakyamuni who had an active ministry.
  • Bodhisattva or “seeker of Enlightenment” (Japanese: bosatsu, 菩薩) – these are beings who seek Enlightement as part of a series of vows to liberate and help others. More on Bodhisattvas here.

In some Buddhist schools, these are seen as separate, distinct paths or “vehicles”, but the Lotus Sutra turns things on its head by saying that these ultimately converge anyway, so it’s really just one single path.

According to the book Saicho: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School, this led to a very intense debate in China between the Tiantai and Faxiang schools, and this debate carried over in Japan too. Saicho from the Tendai school debated heavily with the Hosso (Faxiang / Yogacara) school particularly with a brilliant scholar-monk named Tokuitsu who defended the Hosso school’s Five Natures Doctrine.

Even today it’s still an interesting argument to consider: are there really three possible outcomes for Enlightenment or one? Is everybody destined to become a Buddha or only some?

The Pali Canon subtly implies that there are three vehicles, not one. But the Lotus Sutra asserts a more idealistic vision.

Which one do you think is right?

The Six Gates of Buddhist Meditation

Recently, I picked up a copy of The Six Dharma Gates to the Sublime, which was written by the famous Chinese Buddhist master Zhi-yi (智顗, 538–597) and translated by Bhikshu Dharmamitra.  Zhi-yi is something of a super star in Chinese Buddhism, and Buddhism across East Asia,¹ but his writings and teachings aren’t well understood in the West, so I wanted to learn more about him.  Much of what we see in East Asian Buddhism, how it’s organized, and certain fundamental teachings, are due to his research and writings.

According to Bhikshu Dharmamitra, the Six Dharma Gates to the Sublime (六妙法門) is the third of four in a series of Buddhism meditation manuals written by Zhi-yi.  Zhi-yi was a proponent of the classic Buddhist meditation called “calming and insight meditation”, or śamatha-vipaśyanā dhyāna in Sanskrit (शमथविपश्यना झान).  Note that this is actually two forms of Buddhism meditation, shamatha (calming) and vipashyana (insight), combined like two halves of the same coin. In Japanese Tendai Buddhism this is called shikan (止観) meditation.

Anyhow, Zhi-yi describes six progressive states of meditation:

  1. Counting
  2. Following
  3. Stabilization
  4. Contemplation
  5. Turning [back]
  6. Purification

Inevitably, if one practices Calming and Insight meditation, you start with counting the breaths first.  Then, as Zhi-yi explains:

When one becomes aware that the breath has become insubstantial and faint, the mind becomes gradually more subtle along with it.  One subsequently becomes concerned that counting has become a coarse activity.  One’s state of mind is such that one does not with to engage in counting.  At just such a time, the practitioner should let loose of the counting and then proceed to cultivate “following”. (pg 37)

In other words, you transition in order from the first gate to the last.  The reality is is that without prior experience and practice, you may have trouble getting your mind to calm down at the first gate, and this is OK.  It simply takes patience and repetition.

In any case, the book is mostly an exploration of these six “gates” from different angles, including how to use them to counteract negative states of mind that may arise during meditation.  It’s a very deep, technical look at how the mind progresses through these states, and the various ways they may manifest.  While the book may be a bit dry at times, it is also probably one of the best, most scientific approaches I’ve read so far to meditative experience in Buddhism.

¹ If you’re curious, his name is pronounced Chigi in Japanese, Chi-eui (지의) in Korean and Trí Nghĩ in Vietnamese.

Weird Buddhist Dream V

Recently, I had a Buddhist-themes dream, the first in many years. For the record, I don’t believe these dreams are divinely inspired, I do think my subconscious is probably trying to tell me something.

Anyhow, in this dream I was a monk or some kind of novice at a small Buddhist monastery here in the US (presumably). In the dream, I was looking around for something when my teacher finds me and scolds me saying “why aren’t practicing with the other students?” It turns out the teacher was one of my old Kendo sensei from college.1

I forget what I said in reply, but I was making some excuse about having lost something and I kept looking in one room or another to find it.

That’s all I can remember, but I wonder if the dream is trying to tell me something….

1 In real life, I decided to quit kendo after a couple years to focus more on school work. I remember him scolding me for being a quitter, and it made me feel pretty bitter. I actually really liked my sensei, and we had a shared love of Star Wars and Yoda, so I think that’s why my feelings got so hurt. Looking back though, maybe he was just trying to use “tough love” to keep me practicing Kendo. I guess I will never really know. :-/

Karma Matters

This was a pretty tragic, though somewhat creepy article read from the BBC. Take a moment to read the article if you can.

The first thing I thought of when I read this article was a Buddhist text called the Earth Store Bodhisattva Sutra. This is the only sutra that mentions Jizo Bodhisattva, but its primary message is the importance of karma. For example, this famous quotation:

“Karma is tremendously powerful. It is capable of covering Mount Sumeru, is capable of plumbing the vast ocean depths and is even capable of obstructing the holy doctrines. Therefore, sentient beings should not neglect lesser evils as being not sinful; for retribution will be meted out to them after their deaths for every bad intention or violation, even though it be as small or insignificant as an iota. Even beings as closely related as fathers and sons will part their respective ways, and one will not take the punishment of the other even if they chance to cross paths…”

However, it’s misleading to think of karma as a kind of divine punishment. For example, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk Ou-I once explained it like so:

When you plant melon seeds you get melons, and when you plant beans you get beans. [Effect follows causes] like a shadow follows a physical shape, like an echo responds to a sound. Nothing is sown in vain. This is called “believe in the result”. (pg. 53, Mind-Seal of the Buddhas)

Finally, don’t discount the impact that one’s actions have on what the Yogacara school of Buddhism called “perfuming the mind“.